Making use of CO2 Capture for Saving Earth and HumanA Comparison of “Carbon Capture and Storage-CCS” and “Carbon Capture and Storage Energy-CCSE”

The research content of three time periods: 1.Shanghai jiao tong university period(1954-1965). I graduated from Shanghai jiao tong...

The research content of three time periods:

1.Shanghai jiao tong university period(1954-1965).

I graduated from Shanghai jiao tong universityat 1954. I am stayed at school as tearcher. Inuniversity period,The courses I tutored or teached were:  metallography, steel heat treatment, metallurgy, ironmaking, physical chemistry andhigh temprature metallurgical physical chemistry.At the same time,I'm in charge of four laboratories and one of them is the metallurgical physical chemistry laboratory

During the work of Jiaotong University, why can barium carbonate accelerate the carburizing process speed, always thinking.

Chemical Reaction Mode Cyclic Catalysis Mechanism-CRMM suggests that BaCO3 is decomposed by carbon in the carburizing box, which produces many CO, and thus accelerates the carburizing rate.The equation is the following:




[C]+3Fe=Fe3C (carburizing)

 This is the cyclic catalysis mechanism of CRMM. Some papers refer to the Oxygen Transfer Mechanism (Theory)-OTM or OTT.
CRMM or OTT have three main points:

a, The catalyst must participate in the chemical reaction.
b,The catalyst BaCO3 is decomposed and generated in the process again and again,
c, There must be intermediate compounds,such as BaO.

The theoretical calculation with  thermodynamics data can proves that the CRMM is completely wrong. But to convince reader, I had to experiment.  I took advantage of my favorable laboratory conditions,  An experimental device for measuring the equilibrium pressure of “BaCO3 +C=BaO+ 2CO” reaction was set up.

 The experimental results showed that the equilibrium pressure of this reaction, at the carburizing temperature of 9400C, was much lower than the pressure of 1 atm, as the pressure of carbon monoxide in the carburizing tank is close to 1atm. and this reaction was impossible in the carburizing box. At 1963, I presented my first paper at the “first national annual heat treatment conference”.Title:“The catalysis of carbonate in solid carburizing agent”

2,Shanghai powder metallurgy plantperiod(1965-1983)

At the eve of the cultural revolution.The Shanghai municipal government decided to set up the [Shanghai Research Institute of Powder Metallurgy]. Because of the cultural revolution,The institute was never built。I'll just stay and work at the Shanghai powder metallurgy plant. I was responsible for the production technology of sponge iron powder for 18 years.

The production of sponge iron is completely rely on the gasification reaction of carbon. Iron oxide powder and reducing agent carbon powder are stacked in divide layer in the reaction tank .At high temperature, carbon gasification reaction occurs in the carbonaceous powder layer, and to produce CO. At the same time, the reduction reaction occurs in the iron oxide powder layer,  and to produce CO2..The rate of carbon gasification reaction controls the rate of the whole reduction process.

n the factory, I made many technical innovations.There is a 300Kw iron powder fine reduction electric furnace, Mechanize automatic discharge and dust removal system.I designed and directed it all by myself.

The most satisfied is that I have done two studies using the production conditions in the factory. One is the many determination of iron oxide reduction process in 38.5 m long tunnel kiln。From the measurement results, I have obtained three important conclusions. At the same times, It also lays a foundation for determining relative active of different catalysts.

The other research was that the “Electron Cyclic Donat-Accept Catalysis Mechanism-ECDAM”  or “ Electron Orbital Deformation- Recovery Cyclic Catalysis Mechanism-EODRM” had been formed at that time  In order to verify this theory, I use the double box experiment method, the catalytic active or poison of Fe,Co, Ni,Ag,and SiO2,S etc were measured in the factory laboratory. Although the conditions are very difficult.

The experimental results show that:

a, Fe,Cu, Ni,Ag are all catalyst,the most catalytic active is Fe, and the SiO2,S are poison.  The results are in complete agreement with the judgment of ECDAM.

b, Again, the CRMM and OTT is not credible, Because Fe,Ni,Cu,Ag etc.can't have a cyclic reaction of oxidation- reduction in a reaction box.For Pt, even less so. As there's a lot of carbon in the box.

C, The double box would be a good method to research the relative active of catalysts for the carbon gasification.

In the reducing agent carbon (coke or charcoal),it contains many impurities, some have a catalytic active, some are poisoning.This paper, [Catalyzing and poisoning action of mineral impurities in carbon on reduction of iron oxide ] can be said to be the most useful article.

3,Shanghai research institute of materials (1983-1994)

After the end of the cultural revolution, the personnel transfers were thawed, and I went to the Powder Metallurgy Laboratory of Shanghai Research Institute of Materials to do research.

The research project is the production technology of spherical stainless steel powder acetylene flashback arrestor. The produce technology has been studied in institue for more than 10 years. But never made It.I have accepted the project, After about a year or so, The sintering process without pad have studied successfully, and apply for a patent, and spread throughout the country on dry flashback arrestor in acetylene generator.

This process also involves the carbon gasification reaction, as the amount of binder added must match the oxygen content in the metal powder.

I trained three session of master graduate student, the two session of them was to verify ECDAM. The content of the research topics completely related to carbon gasification and catalysis mechanism .

1, Tan Man Shen, "when the vacuum sintering, metal oxide reduction mechanism and the influence of additives on reduction rate" .1988.

2, Hong Tuo, "Fe - C alloy sintered , carbon dissolving mechanism and the effect of alloying elements on the dissolution rate of carbon”.1989.

  From school to factory to research institute, I have been studying the catalysis mechanism of carbon gasification reaction for more than 40 years. In the factory for 18 years, the carbon gasification reaction accompanied me every day.

In my life, I am proud to have four “one”:

1,One curve
                 FIG. 1, A curve on iron oxide reduction process by carbon in 38.5meter tunnel kiln

Fig. 1 is a valuable curve for teaching, research and production. It also has reference value for blast furnace ironmaking.

From fig 1, three conclusions can be orbtained:

a, The reduction process of iron oxide by carbon is step by step.. That is Fe2O3-Fe3O4-FeO-Fe. in which the reduction process of FeO(Wusttite) lasts for up to 28 hours. It is longest.

b,  The carbon gasification reaction(CO2+C=2CO)is the control step in whole reduction process.

c,There is a reduction “endpoint”. The reduction process and carburizing process are clearly separated.

   This study lays a theoretical foundation for the future study of catalytic active of different catalysts or  ECDAM & EODRM..

2, One experimental research method

The experimental research method is that the size of the two material boxes is exactly the same (such as 100x40x40mm) . The test materials (iron oxide powder and carbon powder) are also identical. The difference is that the catalyst added in the carbon layer is different,such as None-Fe, Fe-Cu,Fe-Ni,Cu-Ni,None-BaCO3 etc. In the same experiment temperature, the gas velocity, gas composition, and carbon content in sponge iron after reduction were determined, The relative active of difference catalysts was determined. The advantage of this method is that the high purity carbon powder or graphite powder have no use for experiment. the influence of impurities in the carbon on the catalytic activity is cancel out each other. The most important thing is that the chemical state of catalyst is completely predictab on the basis of thermodynamic data..It is impossible come out an absurd cyclic catalysis mechanism on the noble metal catalyst in literature .Because it is impossible for the noble metal such as Pt undergo an oxidation-reduction cyclic reaction in the reaction box contained many carbon..

By the way,American scholar Mckee D. W. had researched the catalytic active of the alkali metal and oxide, alkaline earth metal and oxide, transition metals and noble metals etc. on the catalysis mechanism of four carbon gasification reaction with expensive Controlled Atmosphere Electron Microscopy(CAEM).They made a lot of experimental research, the author think he didn't get proper results, although he expect to have a good experimental method at the end of paper.

In fact, the relative catalytic activity of many catalysts, especially for carbon gasification reaction, can be obtained by using the double-box method.Unfortunately, I don't have the time and the conditions.

3,One basic theory on heterogeneous catalysis

This theory is the “ECDAM or EODRM”. This theory comes from the analysis of the mechanism of carbon gasification reaction. Experimental studies and of other scholars have proved that this theory is reliable and is a basic theory of multiphase catalysis

                     FIG. 2, Image of orbital deformation-recovery as catalysis and poison

.Fig. 2 is an image. Because electronegativity is not the same. Electron movement and orbital deformation of carbon matrex must occur when the oxgen is adsorped at surface of carbon.  The electron or orbital returns again to its original state after desorption of product.

ECDAM or EODRM believes that the catalysis phenomenon is a physical phenomenon, not a chemical phenomenon, the catalyst does not participate in the chemical reaction,there are no crystall type transformation, and no intermediate compounds ,it is just contact, electron cycle and  electron orbital deformation and recovery of metrex.. Electrocatalysis, photocatalysis, Microwave catalysis, Laser catalysis are all physical phenomena. The selectivity of a catalyst depends on its energy level.

When we examine current production with this theory, we will find that many things are unreasonable. For example, alumina in iron-based ammonia synthesis catalysts ,. the support material in automobile exhaust purification catalyst. filter material inthe diesel smoke filter and the support material of Platinum catalyst in fuel cell and so on.

High school textbooks still use the CRMM to educate students, which is really misleading.

4, One CCSE or SSE technical rout

As the CCS technical route emerges,The idea of an electric gas generator seems to come up at the same time.In fact, the idea of electric gas generator has been around for a long time. The carbon gasification reaction is also known to be an endothermic reaction. But, the worry is that many scientists in the world are researching on how to reduce the content of carbon dioxide in the air. Why can't never read about heating with electricity to produce gas in the newspapers or magazines. Skeptical,Be slow to write。

The idea of rural gasification was born after I moved from Shanghai to live in the countryside. Once in the countryside, Ifound that the mountain mans are using also the liquefied natural gasin order to cooking. Wilted firewood all over the hills was abandoned year after year in the mountains.What a pity.

From my research history, from a small topic scale up to a large global project. My research never left the carbon gasification reaction .They think naturally that this is the inevitable result which the CCSE or SSE is proposed..

  But I still have some doubts about whether this project will be recognized by the international community.

In the '60s, I said that the CRMM was wrong. But by 2009, Nearly 50 years apart,in the [Heterogeneous catalysis and solid catalysts”] book wrote by four German scholars, the CRMM was raised to the “principle”. namely Sabatier`s principle and Boudart principle. They known all that gold is to fear the fire,But some scholars studied the catalysis of noble metal catalyst Pt etc. on C+CO2 and C+H2O two reactions, It was proposed that platinum could also undergo oxidation-reduction cyclic reactions.This catalysis mechanism, which is completely contrary to the fundamental principles of thermodynamics, comes from famous chemical scientists, who do not have even the most basic knowledge of metallurgy? It is really incredible.

    For the CCSE or SSE,I think it's very simple, electric furnace and gas tank, there is no abstruse theory,and now I have not thought of the existence of the impossible. But I am also fraid that will get the same result as ECDAM or EODRM.

       I am looking forward to the endorsement and support of the IEA for CCSE or SSE. If rural coal gasification is realized on a global scale, perhaps the wars of human beings killing each other will leave human society forever。

I wrote several articles, after repeatedly consideration, I considers that the most useful article should be first article of each topic.The beginning is the most difficult part. But the first article is also the most imperfect.  The later articles are inseparable from the first article. The first article of ECDAM or EODRM is “Catalysis of carbonate in pack carburizer”,it is Published in 1963 at the[ first annual national heat treatment conference].On the CCSE or SSE, the first article is “Power Generation Technology Using CO2 capture energy storage”,2016, it is published in the journal of “Power& Energy”.

I think that two articles are satisfactory. One is“A comparison of two heterogeneous catalysis mechanisms”,it is published in the MRC[Journal of Modern Research in Catalysis],2020. The other one is this one,”Making use of CO2 capture for saving earth and human-A comparision of carbon captureand storage-CCS and carbon capture and storage energy-CCSE”,2020. Especially from 2016 to 2020,The CCSE or SSE is that there is a huge leap, which I never expected. I'm very satisfied. The thought of rural coal gasification comes from countryside life.

Animals and plants on the earth grow every day, absorbing and storing energy. The ground is covered with energy. But man go always to underground and sea for searching coal and oil,  that how stupid it is。

As the earth's population grows year by year,and more energy is consumed,  The CCSE or SSE may not be a long-term solution. Afforestation,realization of forest cemetery in global, storage of wood,it is the ultimate solution.

 I never expected to encounter two hard nails in my research way. One is CRMM,which has been used in catalytic academia for over 100 years.  The other is CCS, which is being used in the global at present. why, because to explain its mistakes, no esoteric theory is needed.There are many top scientists in the world researching on these two subjects, and I, the little guy, say they are wrong. I still don't understand at yet. Conformity and lockstep may be the root cause.

 I am old man , with no research group and no research funding, but from my article on "problems worth studying in heterogeneous catalytic productions and researches",it has proposed several topics worth studying, all of which are large projects. Unfortunately, it is no any responded.

 Finally,I conclude this reminiscence with a poem by li bai, the famous ancient poet of the Chinese nation.

Author :  Jin Jia Min
                I and CO2+C=2CO reaction I've been associated with carbon gasification reaction (CO2+C=2CO) for 60 years.《Making use of carbon capture for saving the earth and human》articleis actually an extension of my research topic on “catalysis mechanism of carbon gasification reaction”. I studied this topic, the original idear is entirely from textbooks on <Steel Heat Treatment>,it is a very small chapter, packing carburizing of steel part surface. In order to accelerate the carburizing speed and improve the carburizing layer quality, thesolid carburizing agent must be added catalyst.The catalyst commonly used in production is barium carbonate(BaCO3).The surface solid carburizing of steel parts is anage old and ancient method.Butabout the catalysis mechanism of catalyst in the literaure, it is opinions vary.In order to find out this problem, In the 1960s,I started this research topic.Unexpectedly,it is continued for 60 years,avery small topic expanded gradually into metallurgy, machinery, chemical industryand becames a large project to refer to global.

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Global Journals | Science Innovations & Stories Blog: Making use of CO2 Capture for Saving Earth and HumanA Comparison of “Carbon Capture and Storage-CCS” and “Carbon Capture and Storage Energy-CCSE”
Making use of CO2 Capture for Saving Earth and HumanA Comparison of “Carbon Capture and Storage-CCS” and “Carbon Capture and Storage Energy-CCSE”
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