HISTORY, HOW IT WAS (History of Unitary Quantum Theory creation)

Author: Professor Sapogin Leo Georgy Sapogin Leo Georgy (1936). Mother--Pechorina Anna (1909), father--Sapogin Georgy (1905). Bor...

Author: Professor Sapogin Leo Georgy

Sapogin Leo Georgy (1936). Mother--Pechorina Anna (1909), father--Sapogin Georgy (1905). Born on October 22, 1936 in Orel City, Russia; married on Dr. of Medicine Natsouk Vera. Father of Anastasiya (1977), Grandfather of Sonya Gol’tsova (1999). Presently she is ballerina of the theatre of the Opera and Ballet in Voronezsh City - Russia. Now Sonya is most loved creature.

Professor Sapogin now lives in Moscow, Russia. He began in 1954 to study in Taganrog Radio-technical University and graduated (Dept. of solid state physics) in 1959.

He served during his military service from 1959 to 1972 at Ministry of Defence as the scientific adviser. Candidate of science (1966). He maintained (1971) the doctor degree in Leningrad State University.In 1972 to 1985, he was the Head of Theoretical Department in Russia Academy of Science. Since 1985 till present he is the Head of Physical Department of Technical University – MADI (Moscow Auto and Highway Construction Inst.).

He is the author (or coauthor) of numerous (over 200) published scientific articles, 4 books, school supplies. He obtained (with V. Boichenko), first, very important scientific result: calculating (with accuracy more 0.03%) of the electrical electron charge and of the fine structure constant -1/137. He published (2005) in USA and Russia (together with Prof. Yu. Ryabov and V. Boichenko) the book named “Unitary Quantum Theory and New Source of Energy”. Second edition of it was in 2015.

Together with Ryabov he calculated mass spectrum of elementary particles and mass bozon Higgs - 131.7 GeV. Professor L. Sapogin - academic of Russian Academy of Natural Science and World Academy of Complex Safety. He was honored with 9 medals and Orders.

In addition to his interests in science and classical music, Professor L. Sapogin has an interest in mountaineering. During 1956-1996, he had more than 200 ascensions in Caucases, Tyan-Schan, Pamir and Alps. His biography is included in collection books of “Who’s Who in the World” (2006), of International Biographic Centre, Cambridge (2009) and “500 Greatest Geniuses of the 21st Century” of American Biographical Inst. (2009).


In 1954 I entered 1 course of Taganrog Institute of Radio Engineering (department of Radio electronics) and graduated from Institute in 1959. In fact, Institute had no course of standard quantum physics but they delivered series of well-done lectures on general physics with perfect experimental works. In 1955 professor of Department of Higher Mathematics Mr. Tikhomirov Henry Mikhaylovich organized weekly Quantum Mechanics seminars(I never missed even one), in 1956 he organized another seminarson General relativity theory (we discussed Eddington book). Since then we had good friendly relations and once in 1957 even climbed 3A pike of Belela-Kaya in Caucasus.

After thorough study of two books of I.S. Schpolsky and D.I. Blokhintsev (“Atomic physics” and “Quantum mechanics”), I was amazed by wave-corpuscle dualism and its “explanations” by Complementary principle, which in fact had explained nothing but presented ideology «ad hoc». My brain was not ready for such violent perception. It was unclear how this very small indivisible particle was able to penetrate two gaps at once while distance between them was hundred thousand times more than entire size of the particle. In spite of small localization particle was at the same time detected in huge region of space. Moreover I was always interested in question: what was the origin of everything? We knew that everything consisted of atoms and molecules, but what about them? I could not find any decision of this problem…

Intuitively, even in school, I always imagined particles as bunch of some field. Later after development of UQT I knew about amazing sentence of Albert Einstein about moving stone, it can be find in the article [13] .   Following Faraday I rated field as such “state of space when particles and masses being placed in were affected by forces”. Analysis of nature of such state of space should be put on ice for better time.It would be in the spirit of Newton. I was really upset to know that particle could not be described as wave envelope of de Broglie waves, it was well argued in the D.I. Blokhintsev work. But in general the problem of wave envelope movement in the space with different dispersions had exited me.

We had special course in the institute on Travelling-wave tube (TWT) in which the electromagnetic wave was retarded by interaction with a beam of electrons as it passed down the tube. In other words it was a dispersion media in which some signal should be distorted as separate wave constituents of its spectrum moved with different velocities. By the way, for the first time this phenomenon was observed while signaling by Atlantic cable and this problem was explained and solved by Oliver Heaviside. In my institute worked Nikolay Mikhaylovich Sovetov who headed the Department of Radio Transmitters, later he headed the Department of Electrodynamics in Saratov University. He wrote few articles on theory of “carcinotron type O”. In fact it was the same TWT where electromagnetic waves moved backwards. In accordance with my educational program I had to prepare a project on TWT. I was interested how could be distorted rectangular impulse as it passed in such dispersion system. I asked prof. Sovetov to allow such investigations in frames of my project. Further I faced problems with assessment of nontransitive integrals. Sovetov could not suggest me any decision and offered to ask prof. Mikhail Nikolaevich Marooshin – he was a brilliant lecturer of mathematics and I seemed to be his favorite student. Prof. Marooshin offered to assess integrals by “fast gradient descent” method.  In the result I got good values for rectangular impulse distortion which spectrum was well known. 

But the main result of this project was appearance of new idea to present particle as a wave envelope able to periodically appear and disappear while passed in dispersion space where wave envelope could be identified as wave function. It was in 1957. It was still unclear what dispersion should be and how wave envelope should look like. But it looked so nice in pictures of wave function for harmonic oscillator.  It required only (!)…. new quantum theory based on that fundamental principle and mathematical computation. Inspired by this idea I described it prof. Sovetov during exam, I proposed how wave-corpuscle dualism could be explained and, more important, I explained de Broglie formula.  I passed test but my quantum-mechanical ideas did not arise his interest … he said he did not think that was the way the quantum mechanics worked. Today I think it was thoughtlessness from my side to describe these ideas… I say it especially for young people. Later I was really afraid that he could use these ideas, because they were so exiting, luckily it did not happen. In the short run(and now without any fear) I described them in details to my spiritual father prof. Kharin Alexey Nikolaevich, he considered them to be “the greatest idea if I were able to execute it”. So high appraisal from the side of one of the most respectful person encouraged me and I began its development but without further discussions with anybody else.  

One of the most excellent students of our Department Lyamov Vitaly Eugenievich was a year older. We were acquainted with him and even discussed “fast gradient descent” method, as at that time a few people knew it. I planned in short time discussing with him my quantum mechanical ideas but that happened only 4-5 years later. In 1958 he graduated institute and was deployed for work into SRI-4 (Scientific Research Institute 4) of USSR Ministry of Defense, as for me, in 1959 after graduating from institute I was conscripted to the army as officer of Strategic Missiles and became engineer-lieutenant.


In August 1959 I went to Baikonur (it was called in other way, it could be any address: Tashkent-90 or Kyzyl-Orda-50). Both points were so far from real location… I was directed to the division of rackets telecommand, it was really interesting for the beginning…so I went to the library (quite good by the way). There were a lot of math books and just a few for quantum physics. I started with four: E.T. Wittaker & G.N.Watson “A Course of Modern Analysis”, N.N. Bogolubov & D.V. Shirkov “Introduction in theory of quantum fields”, G. Ventsel “Introduction in quantum theory of wave fields” and W. Paulli “Theory of Relativity”.  I read three last books very thoroughly and my impression  was awful. I understood (we had very good course of Electromagnetic Field Theory in the Institute) that phase velocity was a simple mathematical abstract notion, that could not be measured at all, and in process of light speed detection the only thing that could be measured was group velocity. However phase velocity (mistakenly identified as light velocity as group one) wasintroduced into wave equation for scalar and vector potential. This caused violent rejection of these books.

I had not dropped my quantum idea but I found another outlet in form of Riemann zeta function. I knew about problem of zeroes of zeta function and I had got a scandalous thought that I could prove that neutral zeroes of zeta function lay in line ½.  I had no idea about difficulty… I’m still terrified by my courage. Within one and a half year I developed solvent of Riemann conjecture … and wrote an article for not more than 6 pages. 


At the end of 1961 I was transferred to Moscow to Mail Headquarters of Strategic Missiles. In January 1962 I visited Director of Steklov Mathematical Institute academician Ivan Matveevich Vinogradov.  I was in military uniform and I asked his secretary about meeting. During meeting I announced about readiness to present my solution of problem of zeroes of Riemann zeta function. He looked at me with amazement and proposed to leave him the article but he said that he could not believe in possibility to prove solution in 6 pages. In half of the year I was called by prof. A.A. Karatsuba, we agreed about meeting … and he showed me great gap in my solution and invitation from academician Vinogradov to enroll his post-graduated course…With thanks I explained Ivan Matveevich impossibility of this “for Soviet Army officer”… But I saved good relationships with these two great mathematicians. I became realistic about problem of zeta function and got calmed.

In short time after this meeting I visited Lyamov in Bolshevo and described him how new quantum theory should be developed… I had well developed graphical picture of quantum world in models and movements…Amazing, but Lyamov understood me in details and said that it could worthy of the Nobel Prize if we could do it. He was the second person to say this, the first was my mother. We started working together and communicated quite often. Soon we could prove theorem that any localized wave envelope of de Broglie waves which spectrum conformed integral terms of Paley-Wiener would always run and could not form any particle. We sent this proof to Louise de Broglie and shortly received his reply and some articles. He was right to say that our proof was correct in linear case only, while his pilot wave was nonlinear formation.

In 1963 together with Lyamov we prepared invention application covering my approach to new definition of quantum theory and sent it to State Committee on Inventions and Discoveries. Unfortunately we receive quite stupid rejection; I do not think we should discuss it in details. Taking into account the importance of quantum problem I called Marshal V.F. Tolubko and said: “Dear Vladimir Fedorovich, would you like to know how the world works? It’s not all the way we think now. I need at least an hour and a half for report, please let me do it.” We met in a couple of days. It was unforgettable meeting. As most as possible assessable and clear I described new view on quantum physics.  As I remember he was astonished. His reaction was: “I like it.  No exit strategy. How can I help further development of this theory?”. We decided that we should turn to President of Academy of Science of USSR. It was Mstislav Keldysh. Together with Lyamov we prepared two articles, one dealt with the problem of wave-corpuscle dualism, another was called “About anomalous side thermodynamic resistance of dolphin”. In this article we solved the problem of plate movement in fluid when flexural wave run along the plate. Basing on analytical solution of Navier-Stokes equation in case phase velocity of the wave equaled the velocity of liquid fluid flow tensor of side hydrodynamic resistance vanished. Together with Marshal Tolubko we visited president Keldysh and passed him articles. I asked about their publications. Keldysh promised to reply. In some time he called Marshal Tolubko and said that publication of article about dolphin was impossible due to secret reasons, as this phenomenon planned to be used in construction of new submarines, he said nothing about quantum theory. Marshal Tolubko decided never remind Keldysh this matter.

But he didn’t give up this idea. With the help of academician Zababakhin he organized our meeting with Nobel laureate academician Igor Tamm. My friend alpinist Shlyaptsev Boris Sergeevich also participated in organization of this meeting. It was a disappointment. Tamm rejected reading our article as “we used formulas unknown for him”.Marshal Tolubko was outraged by these words about unknown formulas, he said: “New science requires new formulas”. My references to de Broglie caused Tamm’s wave of indignation. He called de Broglie retrograde, which hampered the entire modern science and pulled science back in the Middle Ages.

Surprisingly but Marshal did not forget about my ideas and later organized my meeting in Novosibirsk with Director of Institute of Nuclear Physics academician G.I. Boodker, we met both in the institute and at home in presence of Marshal but with null result. Then Tolubko sent our article to academician A.P.Alexandrov with request for publication. Alexandrov resent it professors Galitsky and Byaz for references. They prepared two: one - negative (Galisky), another - sour-sweet (Byaz). In cover sheet to the article academician Alexandrov wrote “I agree” but forgot to add with which opinion! 


In 1972 I leaf Army under the letter of Presidium of AS of USSR and was transferred into Far Eastern Scientific Center of AS of USSR (FESC AS USSR), I was appointed as the Head of Department of mathematical problems in physics and chemistry. During three years I developed more clear understanding of UQT. In 1973 as Chief Editor I prepared for publishing in FESC AS USSR Collection of System Research (Physical research). There for the first time I published my article “About unified field in Quantum Theory”[1]. Number of printed copies did not exceed 1000 pcs, thus nowadays this article is very rare.
About 1975 Viktor Alexandrovich Boichenko entered postgraduate study in my institute. He had graduated Moscow Physical-Technical Institute and we together developed two problems: theory of magnetic water treatment and main general equations of Unitary Quantum Theory. Results of our work on theory of magnetic water treatment were published in Engineering-Physical magazine. It’s one of our most popular and widely read works. According to Researchgate more than 1700 people from different countries and institutes read it. But shortly before Boichenko dissertation defense Highest Degree Commission (HDC) prohibited Scientific Commissions considering for defense dissertations on magnetic water treatment. Thus one of my most talented students was unable to protect his thesis. Unfortunately, a little changed in Russia since the USSR. In the Academy of Sciences still exists Commission for False Science (a complete analogue of the medieval Inquisition) and even there is a government decree prohibiting the consideration and publication of critical works on quantum mechanics and the theory of relativity[2].

In 1985 we managed to solve numerically scalar version of our equation by soviet programmable calculator Б3-34. Later this result was reproduced by computer. It appeared that integral from square of envelope modulus on the whole volume was equal dimensionless elementary electric charge. Thus for the first time in the world we had achieved the value of fine structure constant 1/137. It was later published in [3,4,5]. As far envelope oscillated (appeared and disappeared) my next step was to write by hand Newton equation of motion with oscillating charge. These equations were translation not invariant in terms of coordinate and time (therefore there were no motion integrals for them); such equations had not existed in mechanics at all. Later I derived these equations from Schrodinger equation in terms of very small kinetic energies and quite short time intervals. We used complex substitution system that I saw in a dream.


In 1976 I went to work to Institute of Control Science of Academy of Science of USSR in Moscow; I helped Boichenko with transfer to the same institute. This year I prepared big article about UQT and sent it to Theoretical and Mathematical Physics Magazine (TMP). In some time I receive negative reply: “The editorial board had carefully and comprehensively reviewed the article and decided that it would be unreasonably to publish it in the journal” - it was a feedback for mathematical article.

In the summer of 1976, in the alpinism basa Dombai, where I worked as an instructor of mountaineering, the mathematician Academician Alexander Danilovich Alexandrov rested.He had several articles in his youth with Academician Fock about the problems of quantum theory.Knowing this, I in numerous discussions for a month tried to turn him into my quantum-mechanical faith, and at least managed to do it. He made presentation of my article to the magazine Reports of Academy of Science – RAS USSR. I resent article with his presentation to editorial board and expected that it would be published without any additional reviews. I was so proud.  But in some time I received reply form editorial board about expediency of publishing in another more specialized scientific magazine. So the Academy of Sciences violated the rules that she herself established, and for me the path to serious science was closed.

Then I translated article for TMP into English and planned to send it to American “Foundation of Physics” Journal. But it appeared that I could not send any article abroad without permission from GlavLit of USSR, their main target was to stop publishing of something fundamentally new and important. GlavLit confirmed that my article had contained nothing new or important and I could send article to “Foundation of Physics” Journal. In short time a letter came from the magazine with three reviews: the first review was simply brilliant and began with the words "This article is authoritative, competent and intriguingly original ...". The second review was good and positive, as for the third review – it was negative, the reviewer was dissatisfied with the replacement of mass by the integral from combinations of wave functions and believed that this should be done through the Green function.The article wasn’t published.

Later I sent this article to Italian magazine “NuovoCimento” [6 ].  They quickly replied that article could not be published as it came from the USSR, which did not pay for publications in the West, so it could be published only in the case of exceptional interest.In the next letter, they sent grants with a message that they conducted my article through the fund of underdeveloped countries! Then the same article was published in France [7]. Later together with Boichenko we formulated and published in the same magazine full nonlinear integro-differential equation of UQT [8,5].

It was a turning point in the development of quantum ideas.Around 1975, I met Lieutenant Colonel Vladimir Alexandrovich Dzhanibekov and we had friendly relations on the basis of love for the reproduction of classical music by Hi-Fi equipment.He was engaged in the design of acoustic systems, and I developed Hi-Fi amplifiers.We talked a lot, but when I visited him at home and saw his library, I was amazed. His library was as huge as my, and large kits of books on mathematics and physics turned out to be almost the same. I decided to describe him arrangement of quantum world and results we obtained before. It turned out that he was tormented by the same scientific problems as me. I was stunned by his reaction, as he said that all this was worthy of the Nobel Prize. It was the third person who gave such an assessment. In 1978 he was the first who flew to the space being the Commander of spacecraft, in 1981, 1982 and 1984 he flew for the second, third and fourth times. 

The fifth flight in 1985 was historical, as they docked with the "dead" space station and repaired it. At the end of 1983, Dzhanibekovoffered me to publish a popular article on quantum mechanics in the prestigious "Technology-Youth" magazine.We went with them to the Chief Editor of "Technology-Youth" Zakharchenko Vasily Dmitrievich. He liked the article very much, it contained a lot of material, and Zakharchenkothought to publish my article "The Pious Microworld" in two issues, but then Zakharchenko fearing that article continuation in the second issue could be banned and decided to publish everything in one issue.The reaction to the publication was evident; everyone pretended that nothing happened at all…


Then, I went to work at the Technical University-MADI and got acquainted with two professors of mathematics: Alexander Pavlovich Buslaev and Yuri Alexandrovich Ryabov. I introduced them fundamental nonlinear integro-differential equation of the UQT and asked for help in solution of this equation, or evenof its scalar version.First, together with Buslaev, we spent several years without significant progress, although we made a report at an international conference at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research in Dubna, but with a small result.

By 2000, I began thinking about writing the book "Unitary Quantum Theory and New Sources of Energy." The composition of the authors was determined: I, Ryabov and Boichenko. At the first stage, we published at our University some lectures on UQT and new sources of energy. Professor Utchastkin V.I. took part in the writing of this course. In addition, in 1999, we could, at the suggestion of Dzhanibekov, analytically exact solve the problem of the behavior of the electron cloud in a flat capacitor, to which the sawtooth voltage was applied.At this electrons accelerated very quickly when moving to one of the capacitor plates with an approximately twice increase in mass and a cloud slow return back. Thus, the cloud oscillated between the capacitor plates, but did not touch the plates. If electrons’ inertial mass appeared thanks to the interaction with the field of distant stars (idea belonged to Mahu, and whether this is in fact, still remains vague), then the system would not be closed and it could be possible to move in space without mass discarding.In 2000, we published this article in the American magazine "New Energy"  vol.5, #1, 2000.A similar engine in 2009 was proposed by Roger Shaver.Now NASA allocates 1.5 million dollars for these studies, which are not yet finished, whileI and Dzhanibekov have published already two popular articles in “Technics-Youth” about UQT[9].

2003-present times

Together with Professor Ryabov, we made significant progress in understanding of the methods of our scalar equation solving and agreed to co-write the book "The Unitary Quantum Theory and New Sources of Energy". Book was written and its first edition appeared in USA in 2005 [10]. Businessman and a good friend of mine Viktor Alekseevich Osadchy without any requests from my side (!) proposed to publish it in Russian, which he paid [11]. We could include first computation of mass spectrum in this Russian edition [14]. More exact computations were made with a very good computer presented by Dzhanibekov. The figures are hit. The second edition of our book in America was published at the end of 2015 and it can be downloaded free of charge on the Internet:


Dzhanibekov suggested the most important thing: - to present the contents of our book in simple understandable language in an article of no more than 50 pages.Being a member of the Union of Artist of Russia he is a very creative and artistic thinking man, unlike me,so this idea resulted in a serious of joint articles [12,13,15]. Nowadays results of UQT published in numerous articles can be finding in the Internet: researchgate/sapogin. I should note that the article on the spectrum of elementary particles masses has been published in 7 different journals at their requests.It's funny, but now every day I get 5-6 requests to publish our articles in various journals all over the world.

Readers may not notice that all this giant fundamental work on the creation of the UQT was not included in any official scientific plans and, therefore, did not have any funding, and we received salaries for the main work, which, as a rule, was not connected with the quantum project. Neither I nor my staff have ever been able to go to the International Conferences at the expense of the state, despite invitations. If it was possible to go to the International Conference, it is most often at the expense of the inviting party or for own money and thanks to the help of friends. One can draw conclusions from these facts by himself. I also made another rather strange conclusion that the best education can be obtained in military academies, and only after them in Moscow State University, Physical-Technical Institutes, etc. Today I do not know whether military education still exists, as for the education in civil universities it does not exist at all.


1. Sapogin L.G. (1973). «United Field and Quantum Mechanics», System Researches (Physical Researches) Acad. Science USSR, Vladivostok, 2, pp. 54-84, (Russian).
2.БровкоЮ.П. “Политикавнауке – илинаукаорудиеполитики?” Журнал “ПриродаиЧеловек. Свет” №7/2002.(Russian)
3. Sapogin L.G., Boichenko V.A. (1988). “On the Solution of One Non-linear Equation” NuovoCimento, vol.102B, No 4, p.433.
4. Sapogin L.G., Boichenko V.A. (1991). “On the Charge and Mass of Particles in Unitary Quantum Theory” .NuovoCimento, vol. 104 A, No 10, p.1483.
5. Leo G. Sapogin, Victor A. Boichenko. “Fundamental Equation, Commutation Relations and Relativistic, Invariance at Unitary Quantum Theory”.International Journal of High Energy Physics. Special Issue: Symmetries in Relativity, Quantum Theory and Unified Theories. Vol. 2, No. 4-1, 2015, pp. 59-70. doi: 10.11648/j.ijhep.s.2015020401.15
6. Sapogin L.G. (1979). «On Unitary Quantum Mechanics».NuovoCimento, vol. 53A, No 2. 4. 
7.Sapogin L.G. (1980). “A Unitary Quantum Field Theory”.Annales de la Fondation Louis de Broglie, vol.5, No 4, p.285-300.
8. Boichenko V.A. and SapoginL.G.,”On the Equation of the Unitary Quantum Theory”.Annales de la Fondation Louis de Broglie, vol. 9, No 3, p.221, 1984.
9. Sapogin L.G., Dzhanibekov V.A.(2008), Journal «Technics for a young», No.9,11, February (Russian).
10. Sapogin L.G., RyabovYu.A, Boichenko V.A. (2005). Unitary Quantum Theory and a New Sources of Energy, Archer Enterprises, Geneva, NY, USA
11. Sapogin L.G., Ryabov Yu. A., Boichenko V. A. (2008). Unitary Quantum Theory and a New Sources of Energy, Ed. Science-Press, Moscow, (Russian, transl. from English).
12. Leo G. Sapogin, V. A. Dzhanibekov, A.A. Kostin, M. A. Mokulsky, Yu. A. Ryabov, V. I. Utchastkin (2017). “Is Unitary Quantum Theory able to change civilization?” Advances in Social Sciences Research  4(3), 181-189. URL: http://dx.doi.org/ 10.14738/assrj.43.2714
13.Leo G. Sapogin, V. A. Dzhanibekov & Yu. A. Ryabov.” The Visual Problem of High Energy Physics, Gravitation and Cosmology”  Global Journal of Science Frontier Research: A Physics and Space Science Volume 19 Issue 2 Version 1.0 Year 2019 
14. L.G. Sapogin, Yu. A. Ryabov (2015) "Calculation of the Theoretical Mass Spectrum of Elementary Particles in Unitary Quantum Theory" International Journal of High Energy Physics Special Issue: Symmetries in Relativity, Quantum Theory and Unified Theories. Vol. 2 No(4-1): 71-79; doi: 10.11648/j.ijhep.s.2015020401.16
15. L.G. Sapoginet all (2015) “About the Conflicts between the Unitary Quantum Theory and the Special and General Relativity Theories” Journal of Modern Physics, 4, 6-11. http://dx.doi.org /10.4236/jmp.2015.6608



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Global Journals | Science Innovations & Stories Blog: HISTORY, HOW IT WAS (History of Unitary Quantum Theory creation)
HISTORY, HOW IT WAS (History of Unitary Quantum Theory creation)
Global Journals | Science Innovations & Stories Blog
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