Dark Matter and Generation of Secondary Electrons and Positrons in the Near-Earth Space Environment

Stanislav I. Konstantinov Summary:  The object of my research is the intergalactic medium (physical vacuum), which represe...



Stanislav I. Konstantinov


Global Journal of Science Frontier Research
Summary: The object of my research is the intergalactic medium (physical vacuum), which represents the conceptual basis of the universe and takes part in all interactions in nature. The standard ΛCDM (Λ-Cold Dark Matter) cosmological model should be revised in the light of the analysis of new experimental data, and the simple minimal expansion of the Standard Model (SM) called SMASH, proposed by Dr G. Ballesteros of the University of Paris-Saclay France, is clearly not enough [1]. The Leo Sapogin’s Unitary Quantum Theory (UQT) [2] and the Yuri Baurov's Theory of the byuon [3] substantially supplements SM. Non-baryonic matter, which forms the basis of the intergalactic medium, is in constant force interaction with the baryonic substance of planets and stars that is born from it. This non-baryonic matter is the main source of energy for the formation in them not only of electron-positron pairs, but also of any other structural elements of matter. Moreover, possessing an all-pervasive character, this medium influences all processes occurring in accelerators, colliders, Cherenkov generators and other vacuum installations on Earth and in the Cosmos. A new theory of intergalactic plasma is born at the junction of the three directions of physics: elementary particle physics, quantum electrodynamics (QED), and astrophysics. Only the joint work of scientists from all fields of physics will be able to solve this problem. It is necessary to combine the studies of the mechanism of resonant generation of electron-positron pairs in a physical vacuum irrespective of the nature of its excitation (photons of cosmic radiation, relativistic electrons and protons or a peak electric field) in the near-Earth space environment, Cherenkov generators, tokamaks, accelerators and colliders or in the EmDrive engine. This idea is the basis of my appeal to readers in the article "Dark matter and Generation of secondary electrons and positrons in the near-Earth space environment from the data of experiments PAMELA, FERMI and AMS", published on the pages of the last issue of the Global Journal of Science Frontier Research: A Physics and Space Science Volume 17 Issue 2 Version 1.0 Year 2017 [4] .

The mechanism of resonance interaction of particles in large-scale Poincare systems (LPS):
Tesla’s theory of global resonance [5], subsequently elaborated by Nobel Prize winner I. Prigozhin [6] and professors A.Rykov [7] allows us to see how virtual electrons in the cosmic medium change to real particles. The space environment is a global field of oscillators’ superpositions with the continuum of frequencies. In contrast to the field, a particle oscillates with the same fixed frequency. In front of us, there is an example of the non-integrable Poincare system. Resonances will occur whenever the frequency of the field and the particle are several-fold. The evolution of dynamical systems (field-particle) up to the self-organized matter depends on available resonances between degrees of freedom. This was a conclusion by I. Prigogine and I. Stengers in their monograph the Time, Chaos, Quantum [6]. They revived an idea by N. Tesla on a theory of global resonance. Nevertheless, if the Tesla’s resonance theory of the matter birth in the Aether had been based on an intuition of the ingenious experimenter, then in case of I. Prigogine, this theory acquired rigorous mathematical view. Proved by Poincare non-integrable dynamical systems and the theory of resonant trajectories by Kolmogorov-Arnold-Moser allowed Prigogine to conclude that the mechanism of resonance interaction of particles in largescale Poincare systems (LPS) was "essentially” probable (binding). With increasing communication parameters, there is an increase in likelihood of resonance outcomes. It is such LPS dynamic systems, to which systems of particle interaction with the space environment and with each other belong. I. Prigogine wrote, "Should the systems be integrable, then for coherence and self-actualisation there would be simply no place as all dynamic movements would essentially be isomorphic movements of free (non-interacting) particles. Fortunately, the LPS in nature prevail over other systems." [6]. Experiments PAMELA, FERMI and AMS give the researcher a unique opportunity to simultaneously measure secondary electron and positron fluxes, which is extremely important for the development of a standard model for the generation and distribution of cosmic rays. An analysis of the data of these experiments confirms the conclusion about the resonant character of the process of generation of secondary electrons and positrons in the cosmic medium [4]. The resonant maximum of the total spectrum of electrons and positrons at an external radiation energy Wp ≈ 20 GeV was detected by Yu.V. Galaktionov during its accurate measurements in the detector AMS experiment at the International Space Station [8, Fig. 16]. The maximum of the total flux of electrons and positrons at the photon energy Wp ≈20 GeV corresponds to the resonant frequency of the structural element of the cosmic medium (quantum physical vacuum) νᵣ = 4.6911 • 10²⁴ Hz obtained by professor A.V. Rykov based on the parameters of the structural element of the cosmic medium (physical vacuum), including the charge of the dipole , as well as its electromagnetic parameters μₒ (magnetic permeability) and εₒ (dielectric constant) as early as 2000. [5] According to Rykov, with the size of the structural element of the cosmic medium dipole r = 1.3988 • 10ˉ¹⁵ m, the ultimate deformation (destruction boundary) dr = 1.0207 ∙10ˉ¹⁷ m. is related by the relation dr = α r , where α = 0.0072975 is the fine structure constant. Destruction boundary corresponds to the external photon energy W ≥ 1 MeV (the initial boundary of the photoelectric effect in the physical vacuum. The photon frequency νᵢ = 2.4891·10²º Hz). The deformation in physical vacuum is less than dr should be of an electroelastic character, and at higher values, deformation leads to the destruction of the dipole and to the creation of an electron-positron pair. If, however, the "PAMELA effect" (the increase in the relative fraction of positrons in the total flux of positrons and electrons in the cosmic medium, starting with a photon energy above 5 GeV up to 200 GeV) actually exists, this means the presence of a second resonant maximum for positrons at Wᵣ = 200 GeV [7]. Perhaps the space environment exists in near-Earth space in two states (conditionally call them dark matter and dark energy). Analysis of the resonance curves shown in Fig. 1 and Fig 16 [8] allows to determine the photon frequency corresponding to the natural frequency of the structural element of the space medium (physical vacuum) and its wavelength. The frequency corresponding to the resonance energy of the photon (ν) and the natural frequency of the structural element of the cosmic medium (physical vacuum) is defined as the frequency of the Schrodinger and de Broglie wave functions (for resonance, they describe the same probability density for finding the particle at any point in space):

ν = W / h or ω = W / ћ and λ = 2πc / ω (1)
where W - the photon energy
h - Planck constant h = 6.6260 ∙ 10ˉ³⁴ J / Hz
ћ = h / (2π) ћ = 1,0546 ∙ 10ˉ³⁴ J / Hz
c - the speed of light c = 299792458 m / s
Thus, it is possible to determine the resonant frequency of generation of secondary electrons and positrons for two states of near-Earth space environment (dark matter and dark energy) and wavelength:

Wᵣ ≈20 GeV = 33 • 10ˉ¹ºJ, νᵣ = 4.7 • 10²⁴ Hz, ωᵣ = 2.82 • 10²⁵ Hz, λᵣ = 6.39 • 10ˉ¹⁷ m Wᵣ´ ≈ 200GeV = 330 • 10ˉ¹º J, νᵣ´ = 4.78 • 10²⁵ Hz, ωᵣ´ = 28.2 • 10²⁵ Hz, λᵣ´ = 0.6 • 10ˉ¹⁷ m

Global Journal of Science frontier research


Direct experimental determination of the resonance dependence of birth Ν elementary particle pairs of frequency ν is almost completely silenced by modern physics. Following the deceptive logic of the modern theory, this dependence is drawn as a monotonically increasing curve.

Short Biography
In 1969-1971, being a post-graduate student of the Russian State Pedagogical University, St. Petersburg, Department of Physical Electronics I dealt with the phenomenon of secondary electron emission. During the work I paid attention to the imperfection of Maxwell's theory of electrodynamics and quantum electrodynamics and discovered the effect of unexplained energy growth of clusters of secondary electrons. The composition of my vacuum installation for the investigation of secondary electron emission included:
  • The spherical condenser was a glass flask 0.4 m in diameter with a metal layer applied to the flask wall connected to electrodes soldered to the walls of the flask. Inside the flask, a deep vacuum was created with the aid of vacuum pumps.
  • A metal target placed in the center of the sphere.
  • An electron gun capable of generating primary electrons by heating a spiral, focusing them into a narrow beam and directing it to a target, giving them a predetermined energy (relativistic velocity).

Secondary electrons were generated by impact and deceleration of primary electrons in the target and recorded on the inner walls of a spherical capacitor. Between the target and the metal layer on the walls of the spherical capacitor, a predetermined potential difference was established. The Studies of secondary electron emission were carried out under conditions of deep vacuum. In the case of secondary emission, the electrons emitted from the target have are approximately evenly distributed initial phase, since secondary current caused by electrons having a kinetic energy larger than the height of the potential barrier (output work). The existence of a large number of electrons with the same phase facilitates the formation of clusters. It should be noted that the emergence of excess energy clusters and their discovery due to the fact that in contrast to the increase in the energy of a single electron, clusters of electrons experimental easier to register growth of energy and reliably separate them from the primary electrons. These clusters acquire during acceleration an energy that in tens of times the calculated value of the energy of charge for a given potential difference.
A similar effect of excess energy generation during the acceleration of charged clusters, which appear on pointed cathodes with large currents of autoelectronic emission. The first research in this sphere was started by Kenneth Shoulders. In Russia, these studies were conducted by Academician G.A. Month in 1966. These researchers discovered two extremely interesting facts:
  • Electron current is generated by sufficiently stable electron clusters consisting of 10¹¹ electrons with a size of the order of 20 microns.
  • These clusters acquire during acceleration an energy, which exceeds by 30 and more times the value possible when the charge passes the used potential difference.
These phenomena (especially the second one) are absolutely incomprehensible from the point of view of the ordinary physics.
Paradoxically, in classical electrodynamics particle can move with a constant acceleration, generating energy from nowhere. It is known that in the case of charged particle movement in plane condenser with the constant tension to be applied classical uniformly accelerated motion x = αt² appears. If during acceleration of a charge one takes into account force acting on a charge itself, then the braking due to radiation arises. In different works this effect is called in different way: Lorenz frictional force or Plank’s radiant friction. That force is proportional to third derivative of coordinate x relative to time and was experimentally proved many years ago. If we write the equations of motion for the charge moving in space free from external fields impact and if the only force acting on the charge is the “Plank radiant friction”, then we would obtain following equation:

GJSFR Global Journals Blog

It is evident that equation in addition to trivial particular solution v=dx/dt=Const has general solution where particle acceleration is equal:
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i.e. is not only unequal to zero, but more over it unrestrictedly exponentially increases in time for no reason whatever. L.Landau and E.Lifshits in their classical work “Theory of the field” wrote apropos of this: “A question may arise how electrodynamics satisfying energy conservation law is able to give rise to such an absurd result in accordance to which a particle was able to unrestrictedly increase its energy. The background of that trouble is, actually, in infinite electromagnetic “eigen mass” of elementary particles.” This explanation did not satisfy me. I decided that it was necessary to revise Maxwell's electrodynamics and Einstein's theory on the basis of the experiments of N. Tesla, effects Kasimir, Lamb – Rutherford, Cerenkov-Vavilov and the results of my research. However, these effects contradicted Einstein's dominant theory, and my scientific work was not recognized by my scientific supervisor. In my further 25-year practical work as the head of the group and the scientific consultant in the RSC Energia, I have repeatedly encountered phenomena that do not fit into the framework of SRT and GTR Einstein, but only now at the age of 75 I was able to sum up my observations in the collection Articles published by the publishing house LAMBERT Academic Publishing [9,10] and five articles in the Global Journal of Science Frontier Research: A Physics and Space Science [11-14].

Acknowledgement
I thank the Dr. Vivek Dubey and the entire editorial staff for their attention, support, and giving me the opportunity to publish articles in the pages Global Journals Inc. (US) GJSFR

References
  • Physics news on the INTERNET “Extension of the Standard Model ”, - Moscow: Physics – Uspekhi, Vol.60, No.3, 2017.
  • Leo G. Sapogin, Ryabov Yu.A., Boichenko V.A. The Unitary Quantum Theory and a New Sources of Energy. - Science Publishing Group, USA. 2015.
  • Baurov Yu.A., Standard leptons and the following lepton in the theory of the Byuon, M.: Bulletin of the Russian Academy of Sciences: Physics,, Vol. 80, No. 5, 2016
  • Konstantinov S.I., Dark matter and Generation of secondary electrons and positrons in the near-Earth space environment from the data of experiments PAMELA, FERMI and AMS, Global Journals Inc. (US) GJSFR-A, Volume 17, Issue 2, 2017.
  • Tesla N. Papers.- Moscow: Russian View. 2010.
  • Prigogine, I., Stengers I., Time, Chaos, Quantum - Moscow: Progress. 1994.
  • Rykov A.V. Fundamentals of the theory of ether, - Moscow: Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Physics of the Earth, 2000.
  • Galaktionov Yu. V., Search for antimatter and dark matter, precision studies of the cosmic rays fluxes on the international space station. AMS experiment. Results of four year exposure. – Physics – Uspekhi, Vol.60, No.1, pp. 45-64, 2017
  • Konstantinov S.I. , Cosmic Medium (Collection of articles) , – Lambert Academic Publishing, Deutschen Nationalbibliothek, Deutschland/Germany, 2016.
  • Konstantinov S.I. , Neo-Ether (Collection of articles) , – Lambert Academic Publishing, Deutschen Nationalbibliothek, Deutschland/Germany, 2015.
  • Konstantinov S.I., Generation of secondary electrons and positrons in the near-Earth space environment from the data of experiments PAMELA, FERMI and AMS (2006-2016), Global Journals Inc. (US) GJSFR-A, Volume 17, Issue 2, 2017.
  • Konstantinov S.I., Tokomaks, Accelerators, Colliders and Maxwell’s Electrodynamics, Global Journals Inc. (US) GJSFR-A, Volume 16, Issue 6, pp.85-97, 2017. 13. Konstantinov S.I., Metaphysics of classical space and time, Global Journals Inc. (US) GJSFR-A, Volume 16, Issue 5, 2016.
  • Konstantinov S.I., The cosmological constant and dark energy: theory, experiments and computer simulations , Global Journals Inc. (US) GJSFR-A, Volume 16, Issue 5, 2016.
Research articles:
https://globaljournals.org/GJSFR_Volume14/7-Dynamic-Parameters-of-the-Space.pdf
https://globaljournals.org/GJSFR_Volume16/2-The-Cosmological-Constant.pdf
https://globaljournals.org/GJSFR_Volume16/5-Metaphysics-of-Classical.pdf
https://globaljournals.org/GJSFR_Volume16/7-Tokamak-Accelerators-Colliders.pdf
https://globaljournals.org/GJSFR_Volume17/1-Generation-of-Secondary-Electrons.pdf
https://globaljournals.org/GJSFR_Volume17/6-Dark-matter-and-generation.pdf

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