Story about Hypothetical Discovery of life on Venus

L.V. Ksanfomality, Space research Institute of the Russian Academy of Science, Moscow The origin of life on Earth and the existen...

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L.V. Ksanfomality,
Space research Institute of the Russian Academy of Science, Moscow

The origin of life on Earth and the existence of life beyond it relates to the most fundamental themes of science and philosophy. A significant part of scientific publications of L.V. Ksanfomality is devoted to the search for life beyond the Earth (e.g., Ksanfomality, 1997; 2002; 2005; 2012). Investigations of planets of the Solar system by space means expand significantly the field of search for signs of life beyond the Earth. Spectroscopy in different ranges, chromatography, biochemistry, thermal radiometry and especially television images provide such opportunities. 40 years ago, in 1975-82, the surface of Venus was first studied by television imaging; that is the same method, by which Mars and other celestial bodies are studied now. The TV experiments on Venus were not repeated until now, neither by the Russian nor the other space agencies, mainly because of their extreme technical complexity. At the surface of the planet Venus the temperature reaches 460° C, the pressure of oxygen-free carbon dioxide atmosphere is 9.2 MPa. The VENERA experiments were intended for general notions about the planet's surface. Search for traces of life on the planet's surface with an oxygen-free atmosphere of carbon dioxide, with the pressure of 9.2 MPa and a temperature of 735 K - is then no one came to mind. It would seem that life is excluded. It is possible, however, that the TV images of the surface of Venus, made 41 and 34 years ago and re-processed by modern software, indicate the presence of flora and fauna on this planet, no matter how strange this statement may seem

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(1) The surface of Venus at the landing site of the VENERA-9 lander (1975). The boundary of the image area is a collage. The physical conditions on Venus: Atmosphere: CO2 96.5%, N2 3.5%, O2 and H2O<2 10-5. Temperature: 735 K (462 C). Pressure: 9.2 MPa. Daytime lighting: 400 lux to 11klk.
(2) The object "strange stone with a white tail" in the place of the VENERA -9 landing. The first assumption of the object as an inhabitant of Venus was made in 1975.
(3) Progress in the obtaining and processing of astronomical images. Left – an ordinary, "classical" picture of the planet Mercury. Right - the result of processing of an array of electronic images of the planet in the same phase, obtained and processed in (Ksanfomality, 2009).

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But excluded for Venus is the only known terrestrial life form (Spirin, 2012). In total, by landers VENERA 9-14 a significant number of panoramas or their fragments were got. Part of the treated pan of VENERA-9 (1975) is shown in Figure 1. Modern imaging techniques have greatly improved the image quality and led to the hypothetical discovery of unusual objects, reminiscent of the life forms. The first assumption of wildlife of strange object in the VENERA -9 panorama, L.V. Ksanfomality made immediately after its obtaining, on October 22, 1975. Fixed an object having symmetrical form and complex structure, measuring about 50 cm, resembles a sitting bird with an elongated tail and a very massive head (Fig. 2, a modern adaptation of VENERA-9 materials).

Next, the object has attracted the attention of other researchers, who considered it as geological structure and called it "a subject of unusual shape" and "strange stone with a rod-shaped tail protrusion and the knobby surface" (Florensky et al., VENUS, 1983, Arizona University Press). Unfortunately, the administration of the Space Research Institute of the USSR Academy of Science did not concern by the object. Notions about the impossibility of the existence of life in high temperatures were an insurmountable barrier to any discussions. Yet in books (L.V. Ksanfomaliti, 1978; 1986) and other publications, the image of an "unusually shaped object" cited as the view of a possible inhabitant of Venus. To re-processing attempts of the "strange stone" image of VENERA-9 L.V. Ksanfomality returned time and again, since 2003.

Optical-mechanical TV cameras of the VENERA landers were created by the group of experts of Space Device Engineering Research Institute, under the direction of Doctor of technology A.S. Selivanov and Doctor of technology Yu.M. Gektin (colleagues of L.V. Ksanfomality in study of Venus), and other scientists and engineers. Colour TV pictures of VENERA 13-14 were much more sophisticated and consisted of 1000 vertical lines having 211 pixels with a resolution of 11 arc min. Each shot was transmitted in real time for 13 minutes. Despite the guaranteed operating time was 30 minutes, the images transmitted actually for more than 2 hours. L.V. Ksanfomality appealed to the obtained images repeatedly, but significant progress has been achieved only in 2006-11, when modern imaging tools have been mastered. At the same time image processing methods were improved themselves.
For example, by using electronic means of astronomical observations and their modern computer processing, it has been possible to obtain images of the planet Mercury (Fig. 3, Ksanfomality, 2009), which by quality are close to space craft images, that before nobody succeed. Methods were improving rapidly, and it soon became clear that parts of Mercury processing can be used for revision and new processing of the VENERA panoramas. 

In studying the sequence of multiple panoramas of VENERA-13, it was found that at the panorama V13-6 bw, approximately at the center of the image, obtained in a range of 87-100 minutes of the lander session, in the camera’s field of view, an unusual object appeared, the size of about 12 cm, which resembles a large terrestrial insect (Fig. 4). In subsequent panoramas the object is absent. The object got a nickname "Scorpion". The speed of the "scorpion’s" movement within the single shot panorama can not be established, but because in the panoramas of 53-66 minutes and 79-87 minutes, the object is absent, its appearance and disappearance moving (for approximately 0.5 m) took less than 13 minutes (a velocity of about 1 mm/s). Sadly, the next frame, 100-113 min, is spoiled. But in the last panorama (113-126 min) "scorpion" is gone.

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(4) The "Scorpion" object resembles a large terrestrial insects. Its length is about 15 cm. (5) Stem with quatrefoil at the bottom is a subject of the Venusian hypothetical flora. The height of the stem is about 40 cm. (6) Amisada, climbing on a stone. Amisada’s length is about 12 cm. (7) The greenish snake about 40 cm long, coiled in the ring (color of the figure is exaggerated).
In subsequent years, we managed to perform laborious new panoramas processing and their thorough analysis. Work continues. Of course, in the processing of the original images any retouching, corrections, additions, or adjustment of the image was excluded completely.
Contrast, brightness and sharpness are adjusted. Totally we managed to identify and publish description of the 11 items related to the hypothetical flora and fauna of Venus. Along with the processing methods, the special role of the researcher’s attention is played.

The flora objects proved harder to be found than the objects of fauna. "Stalk" in the original image for a long time did not attract any attention. In the original raw panoramas it is barely noticeable, but on the pre-processed image resembles hardly noticeable defect, like a scratch that is repeated on all images in the same place. When the additional processing and stacking the images, "scratching" object became visible, which has undeniable similarities to the terrestrial plants (Fig. 5). The stem is a vertically positioned thin, possibly knotted trunk, 0.3-0.5 cm thick, rising from the quatrefoil on the surface, with somethink like a bud on the top. Multiples hypothetical "plants" are found in places of landing of VENERA-13 and VENERA-14, which are separated by nearly 1,000 km. If the tops of the stems are really the buds and flowers, one may reflect on their role. Flowers of terrestrial plants intended for their pollination and reproduction. Plant pollination is carried out by insects or the wind (wind at up to 0.3-0.5 m/s was registered at the surface of Venus). Wind-pollinated plants, in principle, do not need flowers, for example, in the case of poplar "fluff." Flowers attract insects to pollinate them. It is possible, the tip of the stems in Fig. 5, at least indirectly, indicates the part of the likely participants in the pollination process, remaining outside the camera resolution.
Is a photosynthesis on Venus possible? In the case of terrestrial flora a diffused light 0.5-7 klux is enough for photosynthesis even in the depths of thick forests. The measured illumination of Venus is of the same order, within 0.4-9 klux. Of course, photosynthesis at high temperatures and in non-oxidizing environment must be based on a completely different, unknown biophysical mechanisms.

Almost all found objects are terramorphy (similar to living forms of the Earth), making it easier to find them, but in itself it is astonishing. Terramorphizm of hypothetical flora and fauna objects of Venus was noted repeatedly in published articles. For example, the "flowers" with their petals are new objects of surprising occurrence of the known forms of living objects on quite different planets, with radically different physical terms. But what are the laws of nature that determine the terramorphizm repeated in so markedly different environments? We can assume that in the future terramorphizm will attract attention both of zoologists, botanists and biophysicists.

Resolution of images that cover parts of a panorama close to the camera is a few mm, so only close and larger objects manage to be identified. It was a luck, to find "amisada", a creature being similar to the Earth's sluggish Australian lizard shingleback. "Amisada" was placed at the very landing buffer (Fig. 6), and therefore we are able to follow its movement, in spite of the limited resolution of the camera. Dimension of the amisada is about 12 cm. A lot of time has taken away for the identification of 40-centimeter long "snake", curled into the ring (Fig. 7). The snake’s body is slightly greenish, in the picture its color is exaggerated. Snake’s parts move slightly on sequential frames, the offset does not exceed a few centimeters during the frame time, 13 min. A general feature of all objects that show some movements is their extreme slowness, of not more few mm per minute.
Information about the objects found are permanently published in the scientific press, the total number of published papers exceeds 30, including 9 works in the Russian Transactions of Academy of Sciences, a journal that reports the most important scientific works by rapid publications.
Global Journal has published 2 articles submitted together with the VENERA TV experiment authors (Ksanfomality et al, 2014;. 2015).

It should be noted that after the first publications (Ksanfomality, 2012 a; b; 2013) the sharp hostility of many researchers appeared to the topic of the hypothetical life on Venus, that is difficult to explain. If papers written on assumptions, of what kind a life beyond the Earth might be, are eagerly read and discussed, the experimental data on Venus are simply ignored. Apparently, is the search for life more important than its find, actually? A number of magazines like Nature or Planetary and Space Science rejected our submitted articles, demanding for “additional evidence”. Of course, the additional evidence is needed, however for obtaining the additional evidence a new mission to Venus is needed. The alleged discovery was made by the study of television images that is the same method, by which Mars is studied now. One can imagine how much extraordinary enthusiasm and publications would be, if something like that is found on Mars. Somehow, it seems that the publications would not have to wait for the next mission to Mars. 

Papers on life on Venus were published in Russian journals by assistance of 3-4 academicians who were not too lazy to spend a few hours for it. They understood the subject and demanded an extraordinary publication. But many scientists believe that life on Venus is absolutely impossible, therefore, it does not worth studying it. As it is known, there is IAU committee of IAU Commission F3, Astrobiology, with the chairman of it Mr. Sun Kwok. The Commission’s behavior is a best example of obstruction. The IAU GA XXIX was held in Honolulu, August 2015. When at a meeting of the commission L.V. Ksanfomality suggested that the Commission should be informed about the hypothetical finds on Venus, the committee members obstructed it and left the meeting. It is this kind of "scientists" who are exploring the Astrobiology. The same position was taken by the Biophysics Section of the Russian Academy of Sciences headed by academician A.Yu. Rozanov, who himself published a work reporting a discovery of traces of life in meteorites. As for the first publications (Ksanfomality, 2012; 2013), substantial support was made by academician L.M. Zelenyi, director of the Russian Space Research Institute (IKI). Later IKI administration has taken a neutral, waiting position. But the most active support of the hypothesis of life on Venus was received from academician A.S.Spirin, one of the world leading biophysicists, who commented the hypothetical discovery of life on Venus, as follows: ‘I insist on immediate publication of the L.Ksanfomality’s paper. In addition to demonstrating the extremely unusual “strange stones” discovered on Venus, that, generally speaking, baffle the attempts of any purely ”mineralogical” interpretation of the images obtained and their independent movement, the article seems to be very important in another aspect. It begins the discussion about the principal possibility of the existence of large living, independently moving objects, under very extreme temperature, pressure and illumination conditions… I have found nothing that would principally contradict the possibility that the living organisms exist under Venusian conditions…” (Spirin, 2012).

In general, the situation is exactly the same, as the philosopher A. Schopenhauer once wrote:
„Jede Wahrheit durchlauft drei Phasen:
In der ersten wird sie verlacht,
in der zweiten wird sie wild bekampft,
und in der dritten wird sie als Selbstverstandlichkeit akzeptiert.“
(Arthur Schopenhauer, 1850).

Until now, we were aware of only one, the Earthly form of life. To say, that nothing more can exist - it is the Earth’ chauvinism. Or to put it simply, our ignorance. The hypothesis of life on Venus can be confirmed (or refuted), only by the implementation of a new mission for the Venus study. It should be a special and significantly more complicated than the previous VENERA missions. However, the progress of science and technology made for 40 years have passed, makes such a task is quite realistic


                                 References for some L.V. Ksanfomality’s publications

1. L.V. Ksanfomality. Planets Discovered Anew / in Russian, NAUKA, Moscow 1978. 152 p.
2. L.V. Ksanfomaliti. Die Planeten / in German, H. Deutsch Verlag, Frankfurt a/M. 1986. 216 p.
3. L.V. Ksanfomality. Possible Emergence and Evolution of Life are Restricted by Characteristics of the Planet // Astrophysics and Space Science, 1997. V.252, pp. 41-50
4. L.V. Ksanfomality. Extrasolar planets as a case for possible life beyond the Earth. Proceedings of SPIE 2002 - The International Society for Optical Engineering. 2002. P. 4939.
5. L.V. Ksanfomality. The Drake equation may need new factors based on peculiarities of planets of Sun-like stars. In: Planetary systems in the Universe. Eds: A. Penny, P. Artimowitcz. Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 2005. London, Stockholm, Grenoble. Pp. 458-461.
6. L.V. Ksanfomality, A. S. Selivanov & Y . M. Gektin Possible Signs of Flora on the Planet Venus. Global Journal of Science Frontier Research // A Physics and Space Science Volume 14 Issue 4 Version 1.0 Year 2014. Online ISSN: 2249-4626 & Print ISSN: 0975-5896.
7. L.V. Ksanfomality. Criteria of Possible Habitability of Earthlike Exoplanets / In Life on Earth and Other Planetary Bodies/ Eds: A.Hanslmeier, S.Kempe, J.Seckbach. Springer, 2012, pp. 253-272.
8. L.V. Ksanfomality, The surface of Mercury in the 210-350 W longitude range, Icarus, vol. 200, 2009, pp. 367–373.
9. L. V. Ksanfomality, A. S. Selivanov & Y . M. Gektin. New Type of Hypothetical Venusian Fauna Found at the Venera -14 Landing Site // Global Journal of Science Frontier Research: A Physics and Space Science Volume 15 Issue 3 Version 1.0 Year 2015. Online ISSN: 2249-4626 & Print ISSN: 0975-5896.
10. L. V. Ksanfomality. Venus as a Natural Laboratory for Search of Life in High Temperature Conditions: Events on the Planet on March 1, 1982 // Space research institute, RAS, Moscow Solar System Research, 2012a, Vol. 46, No. 1, pp. 41–53.
11. L. V. Ksanfomality. Possible Detection of Life on the Planet Venus // ISSN 1028_3358, Doklady Physics, 2012b, Vol. 57, No. 9, pp. 367–372.
12. L. V. Ksanfomality. Possible Signs of Life on the Planet Venus // International Journal of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 2013, Vol. 3, pp. 57-79.
13. A. S. Spirin. Comment to the Article L. V. Ksanfomality “Venus as a Natural Laboratory for Search of Life in High Temperature Conditions: Events on the Planet on March 1, 1982”, Solar System Research, Vol. 46, No. 5, 2012, p. 411.

Cirriculam Vitae:
https://docs.google.com/document/d/11EupnNFVG35qr1-5un1zuHb4OHd2MmCEXIre0NigQxM/edit?usp=sharing


Research articles:
https://globaljournals.org/GJSFR_Volume15/4-New-Type-of-Hypothetical.pdf
https://globaljournals.org/GJSFR_Volume14/4-Possible-Signs-of-Flora-on-the-Planet.pdf

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