“Jalam Jeevamrutham” or “Water is life's matter and matrix, mother and medium. There is no life without water.”

Ms. Swati Saxena Water is one of the five elements described in “shastra” to life. It is also one of the most important commod...

Ms. Swati Saxena

Water is one of the five elements described in “shastra” to life. It is also one of the most important commodities which Man has exploited than any other resource for sustenance of his life. Potable safe water is absolutely essential and is the basic need of all human beings on the earth. Due to modern civilization, rapid urbanization, and industrialization, subsequent contamination of surface and ground water sources, water conservation and water quality management has now a day’s assumed a very complex shape. Attention on contamination and its management has become a need of the hour, because of its far reaching impact on human health.

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Research Story

I selected “Ground Water Quality Analysis” as my research area; half of my research works (Ph. D Research) is oriented on ground water quality analysis of Bassi Tehsil of District Jaipur, Rajasthan, India and other half is related with the development of multifunctional, cost effective “polymer metal nano-composite” for treatment of water in this area. This blog is mainly emphasized on the former part of my research (water quality analysis of the study area). As my research provides information about the ground water quality of Bassi Tehsil; so, it would be appropriate to first introduce you with the Bassi (my study area) before discussing the methods used for assessment of water quality and actual observed water quality status of the area.
Rajasthan is known as “the land of king” and it is the largest state of the republic of India in terms of geographical spread. It is situated in the North- Western part of India having total area around 3,42,239 sq. Km. which represents 10.41% of total area of the country and population of 6.86 crores spread over in 44,672 villages, which is 5.67% of nations population but being just available 1% of the total water resources of the country. The state has extreme climatic and geographical condition and it suffers both the problems of quantity and quality of water.

Jaipur, the capital of Rajasthan, has a total area of 11,117 sq. Km covering the 3.23% of the total area of the state, administered by 13 tehsils or sub-divisions. Our focused area of study Bassi tehsil is out of the 13 tehsils of Jaipur district. The area of tehsil is 654.69 sq. Km. located at 26096’ N latitude and 75062’E longitude. In Bassi Tehsil there are 210 villages (famous for their leather footwear and Embroidery beading). In the study area there are no major surface water sources however; main sources of drinking water are open wells, hand pumps and bore wells.
For water quality analysis, we collected ground water samples from a total of 71sampling sites of 50 villages of Bassi Tehsil in pre-cleaned and rinsed polyethene bottles of two liter capacity in pre (April) and post monsoon season (September-October) of year 2013 from manually operated tube wells and hand pumps of varying depths and analyzed all samples for the physico-chemical parameters like; pH, Total Alkalinity (TA), Total Hardness (TH), Calcium Hardness (Ca H), Magnesium Hardness (Mg H), Chloride, Nitrate, Fluoride, Total Dissolved Solid (TDS) and Electrical Conductivity (EC).

Research Findings

We compared the obtained data with standard limits of BIS, ICMR and WHO and analyzed the samples exceeding the desirable and permissible limits of the water quality parameters. The results revealed that ground water, used by the people residing in villages of Bassi Tehsil, is not suitable for drinking purpose. So, in our view there is a need of continuous monitoring of water quality and proper environment management plan must be adopted to control drinking water pollution immediately. Based on these results and analysis of water samples, we also recommend using water only after boiling and filtering or by reverse osmosis treatment for drinking purpose by the individuals to prevent adverse health effects.
We carried out the correlation and regression study of physico-chemical parameters as a systematic study of correlation and regression coefficients of the water quality parameters not only helps to assess the overall water quality but also to quantify relative concentration of various pollutants in water and provide necessary cue for implementation of rapid water quality management programmes. The developed regression equations for the parameters having significant correlation coefficients can be successfully used to estimate the concentration of other constituents.

From our results we concluded that out of the all pairs, six pairs of water quality parameters i.e. Ca+2-TH, Mg+2-TH, Mg+2-Ca+2, TDS-Cl-, EC-Cl- and EC-TDS shows high degree of linear relationship (high correlation coefficient ‘r’) between them in both seasons.TDS and EC exhibits highest value of correlation coefficient in both pre and post monsoon seasons. In fact, we can say that, they have perfect linear relationship between them. These parameters are also very important as they share linear relationship with most of the other water quality parameters. Calculated R2 values suggest that dependent variables can be well predicted from the independent variables. Adjusted R2 values are close to estimated R2 values supporting the adequate predictive ability for dependent variables, also the relevancy and utility of regression model. p-values less than 0.05 indicates that the model applied is significantly good enough in predicting the dependent variables though values greater than 0.05 suggests that variables are not related to a significance level of 0.05. (Published in International Journal of Plant, Animal and Environmental Sciences in the paper entitled- “Correlation and Regression Analysis of Ground Water of Bassi Tehsil, District Jaipur, Rajasthan, India” in Volume 6 Issue 1, 2016.).

From the obtained data of water quality parameters we calculated “Water Quality Index” (WQI) for each sampling site. Water quality is difficult to evaluate from a large number of samples, each containing concentrations of many parameters. WQI is a mathematical instrument used to transform large quantities of water quality data into a single number which represents the water quality level while eliminating the subjective assessments of water quality and biases of individual water quality experts. Our WQI study supported the fact that water quality of the study area is under threat as more than 60% water samples in both seasons are classified under the category “unsuitable for drinking” according to their WQI values. These values also depict an uncertain and narrow change in the WQI values in pre and post monsoon seasons which is not very significant with reference to potability and groundwater quality. (Published in Global Journal of Science Frontier Research: B Chemistry in the paper entitled- “Seasonal and Spatial Variation of Water Quality Index of Bassi Tehsil of District Jaipur, Rajasthan, India” in Volume 15 Issue 6, 2015.)

For the identification of principal pollutants of the study area we evaluated “Nemerow’s Pollution Index” (NPI) for each water quality parameter of each sampling site. NPI provides information about extent of pollution for a particular water quality parameter with reference to its standard value. By calculating and analyzing the NPI values of water quality parameters for a region, principal pollutants of that region can be identified; which is a vital information regarding deteriorating water quality of the area and also for the improvement of water quality in the area. According to observed NPI values principal pollutants (pollution causing parameters) the study area are total alkalinity, chloride, fluoride, nitrate, total dissolved solids and electrical conductivity in both pre and post monsoon seasons. Though, some sampling sites also exhibits total hardness, calcium and magnesium as principal pollutants with other parameters whilst by analyzing the NPI values in both seasons it can also be concluded that in some samples all parameters except pH behaves like pollution causing parameters. (Published in Journal of Environmental Science and Pollution Research in the paper entitled- “Nemerow’s Pollution Index: For Ground Water Quality Assessment” in Volume 1 Issue 1, 2015.)

In my view the above mentioned methods are very useful in assessment of water quality and provide vital information about it; these methods also enable us to select proper environment management programme for that particular area based on the water quality of the area. If you are going to analyze the water quality of any area; try these methods, you will be able to describe each and every aspect of water quality. The detailed formulae, methods and results of my research can be found out in complete papers. The links of the papers are as follows-
Research articles at Global Journals

 Publishing Experience with Global Journals

My publishing experience with “Global Journals” is really great. I have published two research papers with the journal; one in 2013 and another one included in this blog in 2015. The journal has very clear and transparent policies. The thing which, I appreciate the most about the journal is their prompt and explanatory replies. Journal’s customer support system is admirable, every time whenever you need assistance; they are there for you with suitable answers, making your working easy. It is a great opportunity and pleasure for me to work with “Global Journals”.

Author’s Information

Ms. Swati Saxena
M.Sc., Ph.D. (Submitted)
Research Scholar, Department of Chemistry, Suresh Gyan Vihar University, Jaipur, Rajasthan.
Email: swati.snigdha11@gmail.com
A research scholar with excellent academic career and completed her masters in Organic Chemistry. Recently, she has submitted her thesis to Suresh Gyan Vihar University, Jaipur, Rajasthan. She has more than five years of teaching experience and has worked with various engineering colleges as Asst. Professor, Chemistry and Environmental Engineering department. She has good expertise over all subjects of chemistry (Analytical, Physical, Organic, and Inorganic). Her areas of interest are assessment of water quality, effects of water contaminants on environment, fluorosis problem in Rajasthan, new and efficient technologies of water treatment, treatment of water with nanocomposites, treatment of water with natural products, and other environment related issues. She is conducting research over fluoride and nitrate contamination in various regions of Rajasthan and their treatment methods. She actively participates in different seminars, symposiums, conferences, and workshops. In a very short span of her research period she has presented ten papers in national and international conferences and published ten research papers in international journals.

Research Supervisors-
Prof. (Dr.) Umesh Saxena
Chanakya Technical Campus, Jaipur (Rajasthan) India
Email: saxenaumesh@yahoo.com

Prof. (Dr.) A.K. Sinha
Dean Research
Suresh Gyan Vihar University, Jaipur (Rajasthan) India
Email: ak.sinha@mygyanvihar.com

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Global Journals | Science Innovations & Stories Blog: “Jalam Jeevamrutham” or “Water is life's matter and matrix, mother and medium. There is no life without water.”
“Jalam Jeevamrutham” or “Water is life's matter and matrix, mother and medium. There is no life without water.”
Global Journals | Science Innovations & Stories Blog
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